How long had the car been sitting and how stinky was the gas in the tank?
I have had bad gas do this to multiple engines of varying valvetrain designs. The varnish in the old, dead, gas builds up on the valve stems and glues them into the guides. Some of them bent pushrods, others dropped pushrods, and the ea82t dropped it's cam followers just like yours except I lost 3 at once.
It seems to happen most often after you get it running on the sour gas. While it's running it seems to be fine, but after you shut it down and let it cool overnight the valves seize in the guides and all hell breaks loose when you try starting it again.
If you still have the residue of the bad gas in the tank you will keep having problems no matter how many times you fix the engine. Sometimes replacing the tank is the only option if you can't find someone to clean it or can't get it clean yourself with fresh gas and sloshing it around and scrubbing until it comes out clean. I have chucked a handful of nuts (the metal kind) in and sloshed a tank around until they broke up all the gick. Just make sure you get the same number of nuts back out that you put in.
My solution to getting old cars home is a boat tank. I don't bother with pouring gas in the main tank until I drain it, drop it, and clean it now. With a 6 gal boat tank and an electric fuel pump I can be guaranteed that the engine will run the whole way home on fresh gas and not get damaged. It's kind of sketchy driving with a tank in the passenger compartment but I'm sick of fixing stuck valves.